A sliver of wood coated with tin could make a tiny, long-lasting, efficient and environmentally friendly battery. While such accumulators can store huge amounts of energy, they will not be able to store them for a long time, which makes them impracticable for various mobile electronics. Still, there are many applications that can take advantage of such batteries.
The components in the battery tested by scientists at the University of Maryland are a thousand times thinner than a piece of paper. Using sodium instead of lithium, as many rechargeable batteries do, makes the battery environmentally gentle. Sodium does not store energy as efficiently as lithium, which makes it unusable for electronics, but its low cost and common materials would make it ideal to store huge amounts of energy at once, such as solar energy at a power plant.
Existing batteries are often created on stiff bases, which are too brittle to withstand the swelling and shrinking that happens as electrons are stored in and used up from the battery. Liangbing Hu, Teng Li and their team found that wood fibers are supple enough to let their sodium-ion battery last more than 400 charging cycles, which puts it among the longest lasting nanobatteries.
"The inspiration behind the idea comes from the trees. Wood fibers that make up a tree once held mineral-rich water, and so are ideal for storing liquid electrolytes, making them not only the base but an active part of the battery," said Liangbing Hu, an assistant professor of materials science.
Lead author Hongli Zhu and other team members noticed that after charging and discharging the battery hundreds of times, the wood ended up wrinkled but intact. Computer models showed that that the wrinkles effectively relax the stress in the battery during charging and recharging, so that the battery can survive many cycles.
"Pushing sodium ions through tin anodes often weaken the tin’s connection to its base material. But the wood fibers are soft enough to serve as a mechanical buffer, and thus can accommodate tin’s changes. This is the key to our long-lasting sodium-ion batteries," said Teng Li, an associate professor of mechanical engineering.